Users' questions

Why is successive electron affinity positive?

Why is successive electron affinity positive?

However, more energy is required to add an electron to a negative ion (i.e., second electron affinity) which overwhelms any the release of energy from the electron attachment process and hence, second electron affinities are positive.

Why are all second electron affinity values positive?

The second electron affinity is a positive value as energy is needed to add a second electron to an ion with a pre-existing negative charge. This negative charge repels the incoming electron. Adding an electron is thus an endothermic process, and requires energy input.

Why is successive affinity negative?

It is interesting to observe that the electron affinity of elements having d10 s2 configuration has been found out to be negative. This is consequently due to the accommodation of the electron in the higher p-orbital (i.e., Zn = -87 kJ mol-1, Cd = -56 kJ mol-1).

Why second electron affinity is positive but first electron affinity is negative?

First electron affinity of oxygen is negative but second electron affinity is positive-explain. So, electron affinity of oxygen is an exothermic process and its value is negative when an extra electron is added to O- ion, that second electron experiences a force of repulsion exerted by the negative charge of the anion.

What does negative electron affinity mean?

Electron affinities are negative numbers because energy is released. The elements of the halogen group (Group 17) gain electrons most readily, as can be seen from their large negative electron affinities. This means that more energy is released in the formation of a halide ion than for the anions of any other elements.

Why second electron affinity is endothermic?

2nd electron affinity is always endothermic (positive) because the electron is added to an ion which is already negative therefore it must overcome the repulsion.

What does positive electron affinity mean?

The electron affinity is defined as the energy change that occurs when an atom gains an electron, releasing energy in the process. If a reaction is exothermic, the change in energy is negative. This means that the electron affinity is positive.

What does a positive electron affinity mean?

Why is the first electron affinity always exothermic while the successive ones are endothermic?

1st Electron Affinity is usually exothermic as the energy released when the nucleus attracts the the additional electron is larger than the energy absorbed to overcome inter-electronic repulsion. 2nd Electron Affinity is always endothermic since an additional electron is added to a negative ion.

Why is electron affinity both positive and negative?

Unlike ionization energies, which are always positive for a neutral atom because energy is required to remove an electron, electron affinities can be negative (energy is released when an electron is added), positive (energy must be added to the system to produce an anion), or zero (the process is energetically neutral) …

Why the 2nd EA value of oxygen is positive?

The second electron affinity of oxygen is positive because after adding two electrons to its neutral oxygen atom, it attains a noble gas configuration. A noble gas configuration being most stable, releases energy to decrease the total energy of the configuration.

Why does fluorine have a negative electron affinity?

Electron affinity is the energy released when 1 mole of gaseous atoms each acquire an electron to form 1 mole of gaseous 1- ions. Fluorine has a negative value as energy is released when the electron is gained. This is because there is an attraction between the protons in the nucleus and the added electrons.

How are successive electron affinities related to each other?

Successive Electron Affinities: Electron affinity is the affinity of an element to an electron. As more than one electron can be introduced in an atom, it is called second electron affinity for the addition of two electrons and so on.

Is the electron affinity of an element positive or negative?

So the more negative the electron affinity the more favourable the electron addition process is. Not all elements form stable negative ions in which case the electron affinity is zero or even positive.

Why does electron affinity increase across periodic table?

Electron affinity increases upward across periods of a periodic table for the groups and from left to right, because the electrons added to the energy levels get closer to the nucleus, making the nucleus and its electrons more attractive. Is electron affinity positive or negative?

What is the energy released in the first electron affinity?

Defining first electron affinity The first electron affinity is the energy released when 1 mole of gaseous atoms each acquire an electron to form 1 mole of gaseous 1- ions. This is more easily seen in symbol terms. It is the energy released (per mole of X) when this change happens.

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