Why do different crude oil fractions condense at different heights in a fractional distillation column?

Why do different crude oil fractions condense at different heights in a fractional distillation column?

Fractional distillation separates a mixture into a number of different parts, called fractions. A tall fractionating column is fitted above the mixture, with several condensers coming off at different heights. The crude oil is evaporated and its vapours condense at different temperatures in the fractionating column.

At what temperature does crude oil get separated into different fractions?

about 600 °C
The substances in crude oil have different boiling points, so they can be separated by fractional distillation. The crude oil is heated to about 600 °C, and its vapours are allowed to condense at different temperatures in the fractionating column.

At which temperature crude oil is heated for fractional distillation?

The crude oil is heated to at least 350°C, which makes most of the oil evaporate. The fluid then enters the column. As the vapour moves up through the fractionator, each fraction cools and condenses at a different temperature. As each fraction condenses, the liquid is collected in the trays.

Why does crude oil have different boiling points?

Longer hydrocarbon molecules have a stronger intermolecular force. More energy is needed to move them apart so they have higher boiling points . This makes them less volatile and therefore less flammable .

Which fraction of crude oil is most viscous?

So, gasoline is less viscous than kerosene. And kerosene is less viscous than diesel. This means our answer is C. Gasoline, kerosene, diesel oil is the correct order of increasing viscosity for these three crude oil fractions.

What is the most abundant fraction in crude oil?

Crude oils are customarily characterized by the type of hydrocarbon compound that is most prevalent in them: paraffins, naphthenes, and aromatics. Paraffins are the most common hydrocarbons in crude oil; certain liquid paraffins are the major constituents of gasoline (petrol) and are therefore highly valued.

What temperature does crude oil vaporize?

Fractional distillation involves separating the crude oil into its different parts. The fractional distillation process starts by heating up the material to over 400 degrees Celsius in order to vaporize it. Then, the vapor goes into the bottom of a fractionating column.

How does crude oil separated into different forms of fuel?

The first part of refining crude oil is to heat it until it boils. The boiling liquid is separated into different liquids and gases in a distillation column. These liquids are used to make petrol, paraffin, diesel fuel etc. The gases cool down as they go up the column until they condense (turn back into liquid again).

What happens to crude oil when heated?

heated crude oil enters a tall fractionating column , which is hot at the bottom and gets cooler towards the top. vapours from the oil rise through the column. vapours condense when they become cool enough.

What are the different fractions of crude oil?

Fractions. There are several ways of classifying the useful fractions that are distilled from crude oil. One general way is by dividing into three categories: light, middle, and heavy fractions. Heavier components condense at higher temperatures and are removed at the bottom of the column.

What properties is always different in crude oil fractions?

These have boiling points below room temperature. They are very flammable (easily set on fire) and have a low viscosity (because they are gases). The hydrocarbons in different fractions differ in these properties.

What is a fraction of crude oil?

crude oil fraction in the Oil and Gas Industry A crude oil fraction is a component of crude oil, which has its own particular molecular composition, weight, and boiling point. Heavy crude oil fractions can be cracked to yield lighter, more valuable products.

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